Youth's violence and aggressiveness in sport activities
MASTORA I, VALOTASSIOU C.
1980's is the era where sport psychologists introduce interesting researches about participation in sport, sport violence and fair play. A series of empirical studies, following various psychological approaches and using different research methods, are published. The majority of these studies have been concluded by Shields & Bredemeier (1995, 109-131; 173-192) who apparently justified the statement ęSport: If you want to build a character, try something else" (Ogilvie B., et al, 1971, 5; 60-63). According to these studies, today, sport on it self, is not able to promote the moral evolution of young people. On the contrary, occasionally, a young person may even adopt an aggressive or egocentric way of thinking; he also may show a kind of antisocial behaviour aiming to harm somebody physically, mentally or psychologically. Aggressiveness violates human rights, basic social and sport rules. It creates problems in the interpersonal relationships among team mates, athletes and coach, coach and juries, resulting to the abnormal function of a team. These studies have proven that age, sex, dynamic of exercise, type of sport, and the level of the game are determined factors that influence the moral orientation in sport. Differences among male athletes exist even according to the type of sport. Differences also appear according to the level of their participation and involvement (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995, 117). There are sports that may cause body conflict or crush (football, hockey, rugby, handball, basketball) and other sports that do not include body conflict and do not easily encourage violent actions (diving, truck and field, synchronized swimming and art gymnastics). Concerning the violence in the sport field, we should make another distinction: it is separated to the spontaneous and the conscientious violence. We should also distinguish violence to the one that takes place in the sport field and the one that takes place outside. There are a lot of theories about violence in sport, although there is all single aspect. On the contrary, the theory of multi faceted justification attempts to reveal more aspects, such as the role of mass media, the social political system of values, the sport type, the objectives of the sport activity and the prejudices of the game. Therefore, parents and educators should pass the appropriate messages to their children. As a consequence the need for educational intervention appears in order to support its ideological background. The educational intervention should be critical and flexible, as well as constructive. It should not only deal with suppression. Although, most of the suppressive measures applied today are useful and necessary, it is essential to introduce as a society equally effective preventive measures in order to help young people avoid the legal system of justice by, supporting them at the right time, when they are vulnerable. International conventions that protect sports ideological background help significantly in this direction.
Key words: Sport violence, aggressiveness, prevention, multifaceted justification.